🎰 Generation and distribution of income in Mexico, | Emerald Insight

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THE GDP PER CAPITA OF THE MEXICAN REGIONS (): NEW ESTIMATES* - Volume 33 Issue 3 Banco de México, Mexico City, mimeographed.


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Spain vs Mexico: Compared (1960ー2018) (GDP,GDP per Capita,Millitary,Exports,and Population)

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The following is the list of the GDP per capita of Mexico's 32 federal states, ranked in order of their GDP per capita (PPP) as of Gulf of. Mexico. Pacific Ocean. Central America. United States of America. Mexico City.


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Brazil vs Mexico vs Canada vs Argentina: Everything Compared (1970-2017)

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The Gross Domestic Product per capita in Mexico was last recorded at US dollars in The GDP per Capita in Mexico is equivalent to 81 percent of.


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G20 Countries Ranking by GDP (PPP) 1980 - 2050 (Prediction)

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In , Mexico's GDP per capita amounted to approximately 9, U.S. dollars. For further information, see Mexico's GDP. Economy of.


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MEXICO 💵 GDP Growth \u0026 Urban Population - MEXICO GDP Stats, Capital

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GDP per capita rank.


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The following is the list of the GDP per capita of Mexico's 32 federal states, ranked in order of their GDP per capita (PPP) as of Gulf of. Mexico. Pacific Ocean. Central America. United States of America. Mexico City.


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All Countries GDP (PPP) Per Capita Comparison (2018)

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The states of the country with the highest GDP per capita levels are Campeche, Mexico City, Jalisco, Nuevo Leon, Queretaro, Quintana Roo.


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China vs Japan vs Korea vs India: Everything Compared (1960-2017)

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Economy, Demography, Labour and Environment Statistics for Metropolitan Areas Mexico City - GDP Per Capita (USD, Constant Prices, Constant PPP, Base.


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Top 20 Country GDP (PPP) History \u0026 Projection (1800-2040)

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The states of the country with the highest GDP per capita levels are Campeche, Mexico City, Jalisco, Nuevo Leon, Queretaro, Quintana Roo.


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TOP 15 Africa Countries GDP \u0026 GDP per capita Ranking History (1960~2017)

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$10, (nominal, est.) $20, (PPP, est.).


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Top 10 Country GDP Per Capita Ranking History (1962-2017)

Table I shows that GDP per capita had an increase of 58 per cent during the period as a result of increase in public spending and investment attraction policies. This deterioration is consistent with the low levels of economic well-being that place Mexico in the ranking of countries with medium degree of HDI UNDP, b. The new index called ML was decided to use in this investigation as undesirable variables were considered in the income dimension of the HDI. The mathematical expression of the index is as follows Chung et al. An element that also presented development was the Gross Capital Formation, Foreign direct investment being the variable that showed the highest growth during the years studied. DEA models take advantage of the know-how of the DMUs and once determined who is efficient and who is not, set improvement goals for the inefficient, and based on the achievements of the efficient Bemowski, ; Navarro and Torres, ; Serra, In our case, the model was oriented to the output because the ultimate goal of economic well-being is to maximize income and minimize the concentration of it. Human development in Mexico as a goal of economic development models has been partial as, on one hand, it exists a positive evolution in terms of health and education, coupled with positive, but not sufficient, growth rates of employed personnel, public expenditure and GDP per capita. A DMU is efficient when there is no other or combination of them that produces more output, without generating less of the rest and without consuming more inputs. With these data, a statistical analysis was carried out by determining fist a matrix of correlations. The result of this new approach allows to deduce an efficiency measure that, while maximizing the good outputs, minimizes the undesired outputs from a benchmarking process Serra, Although the applications of DEA have been mostly in productive units, it is also applied in studies of quality of life, economic well-being, human development and social welfare Mahlberg and Obersteiner, ; Despotis, ; Yago et al. Starting from the inputs and outputs, this method provides a classification of the Decision Making Unit DMU , giving them a relative efficiency score. Subsequently, factorial analysis was carried out, which is very useful for depurate the correlation matrix. Similarly, it is observed that despite the general increase in the efficient use of resources in the country, it is necessary to promote public policies that encourage this type of management and promote investment, employment and education in each of the entities of the Mexican Republic. In turn, the income concentration data in Mexico indicate that a significant percentage of the states has an asymmetric distribution of wealth, affecting negatively the level of welfare of the society Tello, ; Quiroz and Salgado, ; Ortiz et al. For determining the evolution of efficiency and productivity over time, the ML index is used, which has its origins in the Malmquist index MI Caves et al. For the empirical application of the model in this case, it was used as a good output the GDP per capita and as a bad output the concentration of the income, measured by the Cg.

This paper aims to review the efficient use of economic and social resources to generate income and, at the same time, reduce the concentration of wealth in the 32 states of the Mexican Republic during the period Data envelopment analysis with the inclusion of a bad output was used to diagnose the efficiency of Mexican entities, and the Malmquist—Luenberger index was applied to understand how this efficiency evolves.

These results show that the states of the country that received the most resources in the period Campeche, Jalisco, Nuevo Leon, Queretaro, Quintana Roo, Tabasco and Mexico City were not always the most efficient in the generation and distribution of income.

This research uses positive measures as the normative depends on ethical judgments that are reflected in the values chosen for the parameters of the social welfare function Acevedo, The income dimension of human development apart of the GDP per vegas sls blackjack las includes other indicators such as the concentration of income to determine in a more inclusive way the economic well-being of society Hicks, ; Alkire and Foster, Thus, it reaffirms the fact that there can be no economic well-being if the income generated by a society is not properly distributed among the population that generated it Mazaira et al.

Chung et al. However, this indicator of welfare is still lower than that of other Latin American economies; one of the main causes is the low level of per capita income in the economy UNDP, b.

The research is structured in five sections: Section 1 analyzes the socioeconomic aspects of economic well-being.

The results clearly show that only 3 of the 32 units studied generated and distributed wealth efficiently, while the other 29 must increase their level of income and its distribution.

In regional terms, there is an uneven development of the entities in Mexico. This is because the efficient use of economic and social resources would generate economic well-being and, therefore, contribute to a higher level of human development in Mexico.

Due to the positive results in the tests, we proceeded with the factorial analysis, and a matrix of communalities was obtained, which mexico city gdp per capita that the inputs that best explain the HDI income dimension are public expenditure, degree of schooling and employed personnel Tables III - VI.

If we do not own them, many other options and opportunities of life are inaccessible UNDP, a. The first involves the use of econometrics, and the second involves linear programming algorithms and benchmarking. Hence, an excessive concentration of income can be considered as negative and, therefore, its decrease is recommended Quiroz and Salgado, Mexico city gdp per capita it, is possible to point out that the concentration of income has a behavior similar to an unwanted output, while income itself would behave as a desired output.

The factorial analysis, under the concept of main components, passed the tests of Kaiser—Meyer—Olkin KMOwith values higher than 0. Understanding as opportunities the possibility to have a long and healthy life; be literate and possess knowledge; have economic resources that grant a decent standard mexico city gdp per capita living; and be involved in the community life.

Harttgen and Klasen conceive human development as the process that expands the opportunities of the persons for lives the life that they value and, therefore, reach a higher level of well-being. According to our knowledge, this work is the first that analyzes the efficiency in the generation of income considering bad outputs from a temporal perspective.

The selection of inputs was based on the theoretical pillars that explain the behavior of the components of the HDI income dimension.

Finally, the conclusions are established in Section 5, where the fundamental aspects of the research are highlighted. For this reason, it is relevant to establish as a research question how efficient were the 32 entities of the Mexican Republic in the use of their economic and mexico city gdp per capita resources to generate and distribute income during the period The results of this continue reading allow to quantify the efficiency in the management of the resources during the analyzed period and, therefore, contribute to the design of strategies and policies that energize the behavior of the income dimension of the HDI.

In essence, DEA compares an observed production unit with a virtual unit, which obtains the same or more product with the same or lesser number of blackjack cube watchdog. Based on the DEA methodology, it was determined how efficient were Mexican entities in the use of the resources to generate income article source, at the same time, reduce the concentration of it during the period

For the analysis of the efficiency, the literature offers different methodologies. If it has been approximated, equation 4 takes a value greater than 1 and less than 1 otherwise. For it, the Malmquist—Luenberger ML index is used to measure changes in the efficiency, technological change and productivity over time, taking into consideration the undesirable outputs of the productive process Chung et al. This index combines three elements to evaluate the progress of countries in terms of human development: the Gross Domestic Product GDP per capita, health and education; each one is included with the same weight in the index Griffin, ; Harttgen and Klasen, Under the vision of human development, and consequently of the HDI, the individual must be the center of the design of public policies and, at the same time, the fundamental instrument of their own development Griffin, The distribution of income is the way in which the national product is distributed among those who have contributed to its production, grouping them into homogeneous categories according to the function exercised or according to the nature of the contribution made Salinas, ; Medina, The concentration of income is caused by multiple factors. DEA is a technique used to measure the comparative efficiency of homogeneous units. In this sense, Pittman introduces unwanted outputs in the calculation of productivity indexes, adapting the methodology of Caves et al. Human development seeks to expand the capabilities of the human being, adding to the economic factor the health and education dimensions to have a holistic vision of social welfare. The concentration of income, understood as the unequal distribution of the product generated by a society among its members, is directly related to the concept of human development from the income dimension as economic well-being is not only the generation of income but also the way in which it is distributed among the population. The states considered efficient in the use of their resources to generate income and at the same time reduce the concentration of income, during the period , were Baja California Sur, Campeche and Mexico City. Thus, in this case, the efficient use of resources corresponds with the behavior of the main socioeconomic indicators and to the level of human development displayed by these entities during the study period. In general, Table VIII shows that during the period , the 32 entities worsened the use of their resources to generate and distribute income. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article for both commercial and non-commercial purposes , subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. Thus, the hypothesis of the research is that very few entities of the Mexican Republic were efficient in the usage of their economic and social resources to generate and distribute income, during the period This has important repercussions on the economic and social well-being of the Mexican population. Being so historically the most lagging states in economic and social terms of Mexico INEGI, a , b , c , d , e , f , g , h ; since historically, they have been characterized as being the most lagging in economic and social terms Garza and Schteingart, ; Tello, ; Quiroz and Salgado, ; Ortiz et al. The dynamics of variables such as public expenditure, level of education and employed personnel, despite the positive trends throughout the study period, reveal the need for higher levels of investment, employment and education as its impact on the income dimension of the national and state HDI has been low INEGI, a , b , c , d , e , f , g , h. These results are related to the endowment of factors that these states have and the level of life of their population. In other words, it is relevant to analyze the efficiency in the generation of income. Data envelopment analysis DEA , developed initially by Charnes et al. The concentration of income in Mexico decreased during the period , going from 0. The public spending had a major expansion from 33,m pesos in to 1,,m pesos in The educational level of the society presented an increase of The establishment of companies during this stage was incentivized as they went from , in to 5,, in , factor that had a direct impact on the generation of jobs and on the remunerations of the population. Specifically, it can be seen in Tables I and II that Baja California Sur, Campeche and Mexico City were characterized for occupying the first positions in terms of GDP per capita, public expenditure, employed personnel and average degree of schooling, as well as having the lowest levels of income concentration. The MI can explain the change in the total productivity of the factors as a product of the efficiency change or catching up and technological change. In Section 2, the theoretical elements of human development and income distribution are addressed. These results have, as a background, the poor performance of these last entities in terms of generation and distribution of GDP Table II. The linear mathematic equation 1 is solved for each unit analyzed. This due to the theoretical representativeness that these variables have to explain the economic well-being of a country. The way in which this asymmetry is measured is through inequality indices, which are measures that summarize the distribution of a variable among a set of individuals. In Section 4, the main results of the DEA model are exposed, indicating the entities that efficiently used their resources. However, unwanted outputs often are produced together with desirable results. Table VIII shows that the entities rated as efficient in the generation of economic well-being Baja California Sur, Campeche and Mexico City did not have a similar performance in terms of productivity, during the period That is, these states, despite being efficient, did not present substantial improvements in the efficient use of their resources. Several studies point the importance of the efficient use of resources to increase the economic well-being of an economy. Ayvar-Campos, F. These states did not use efficiently their resources to increase their GDP per capita and, at the same time, reduce the concentration of income in the period Performance that is linked to the unequal allocation of resources public expenditure, employed personnel and average grade of schooling among the entities of the country. In Section 3, the methodological features of the generation and distribution of income DEA model are presented. On other hand, there are important lags in social matters such as marginalization and concentration of income. Emphasizing with this the preponderant position that they occupy within the regional dynamics of Mexico, being the entities that historically stand out in the country for their socioeconomic dynamism Garza and Schteingart, ; Tello, ; Quiroz and Salgado, ; Ortiz et al. Despite the positive behavior of these indicators, the low impact of the income dimension on the national and state HDI reflects the importance of increasing per capita income levels, as this would lead to higher levels of well-being in the entities of the country. In this case, we speak of an output-oriented model, while in the opposite case, it is called an input-oriented model. Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. Given the availability of statistical information for the states of the Mexican Republic, the number of indicators was reduced. Behavior that has been reflected in the three elements or dimensions of the health, education and income HDI UNDP, , , b. In case of improvement positive technological change , equation 5 takes a value greater than 1, and less than 1 otherwise. In the latter case, the DDF is crossed in the sense that it uses the data of one year for the analyzed units and projects them on the production possibility frontier of a different year. Thus, the efficiency results of this study match with the theoretical arguments that indicate that the efficient use of resources contributes significantly to the human development of the countries Mahlberg and Obersteiner, ; Despotis, ; Yago et al. Given that income generation involves the use of resources, it is important, prior to any manipulation of factors, to determine under which combination of socioeconomic inputs an economy is achieving the highest level of income per capita with the lowest concentration of it. Mariano et al.